The Future of AI in Statistics in Africa: Is the Continent Ready?

16 October 2023
Oliver Chinganya

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a transformative force in the digital age, offering the potential for greater accuracy, efficiency, and insights in data analysis. As the world grapples with vast amounts of data from multiple sources, the synergy between AI and statistics emerges as a beacon of hope, promising enhanced accuracy, efficiency, and depth of insights. The question that begs is: how does Africa, with its diverse cultures, economies, and challenges, fit into this AI-driven future?

The digital age, characterized by the rapid evolution of AI, presents African countries with an unprecedented opportunity. In the realm of statistics, AI's capabilities can be harnessed to drive data-centric policies, economic growth, and social development.

Statistics have always been the silent force driving policy decisions, economic strategies, and social interventions in Africa. However, traditional statistical methods often grapple with challenges such as data collection from vast and remote areas, costs, timely analysis, and interpretation in the context of local nuances. AI has the potential to revolutionize these processes.

But the pertinent question remains: Are national statistical systems in Africa ready to embrace AI?

Infrastructure is the bedrock of any technological transformation. While urban centers in Africa are witnessing rapid digitalization, many rural areas still lack consistent internet connectivity and power supply. The human capital, though burgeoning with enthusiasm for technology, requires specialized training in AI-driven statistical methods. Financial constraints, often a hurdle, necessitate innovative funding models and partnerships. On the brighter side, collaborations with tech giants and international organizations are bridging some of these gaps, and institutions dedicated to AI research are sprouting across the continent.

Policy frameworks are another crucial aspect in the adoption of emerging technologies such as AI. Many countries lack robust policies and legislation on digitalization. Clear guidelines on data privacy, AI ethics, and technology adoption can expedite AI integration into statistics, ensuring transparency and fostering public trust. At the continental level, the African Union (AU) is actively engaged in AI governance. It formed an AI think-tank in 2019, and in 2022, the AU was urged to develop a continental AI strategy to enhance policy-making and address AI challenges and opportunities across African nations. This collective effort is essential for harmonizing AI policy and governance on the continent.

While challenges exist, the future of AI in statistics in Africa is promising. With strategic investments in infrastructure, human capital, and policy frameworks, Africa can not only embrace AI but also lead in its innovative applications. The journey has begun, and the destination, though distant, is gleaming with potential.

Current Landscape of AI in African Statistics

The infusion of AI into statistical methodologies by some of the national statistical systems is revolutionizing the way data is procured, scrutinized, and interpreted across the African continent. Historically, given the vast terrains and diverse demographics of the continent, there have been inherent challenges in the collection and analysis of statistical data. The readiness of national statistical systems in Africa to embrace AI can vary widely from one country to another. Some African countries have made significant progress in adopting AI and modernizing their statistical systems, while others face challenges due to limited resources, infrastructure, and
expertise. Factors influencing readiness include government commitment, funding, access to technology, and the presence of skilled personnel.

Many African countries are recognizing the potential of AI in improving data collection, analysis, and decision-making. International organizations and partnerships are also helping in this regard. However, there is no one-size-fits-all answer. According to Statistica, AI adoption in Africa is limited, with only a few exceptions like South Africa, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Togo, Libya, and Ghana actively adopting AI. Many African nations lack the essential elements for technology adoption, including infrastructure, data ecosystems, STEM education, and governance systems.

In the domain of Remote Sensing, satellite technologies are employed to harness data on agriculture, monitor urban expansion, and oversee deforestation patterns. Through the Internet of Things (IoT), we are witnessing devices being utilized to capture real-time data on resources like water, promoting conservation initiatives.
Although on a smaller scale AI-driven models are being developed to forecast climatic conditions, assisting agricultural experts in strategizing crops and optimizing yields. Predictive analytics powered by AI are being employed to anticipate disease outbreaks, ensuring swift preventive actions. In the financial sector, central banks are leveraging AI to predict economic trajectories based on fiscal datasets. In some of the regions vulnerable to natural calamities, AI is deployed to process real-time data, ensuring rapid disaster response strategies. On the academic front, institutions are leading in AI-centric research, with a particular emphasis on its statistical applications. Furthermore, governmental bodies are actively collaborating with the private sector leading tech enterprises and emerging start-ups to integrate AI into their national statistical operations.

The Potential of AI for Statistics in Africa

National Statistical Offices are pivotal in shaping public policy and economic decisions through data and stand to gain immensely from the integration of AI. With robust policies, AI can revolutionize data collection, with tools like automated surveys, remote sensing, scanning data and web scraping offering real-time and accurate insights. The processing and cleaning of data can be streamlined, ensuring data integrity, and reducing manual errors. Advanced predictive analytics, powered by AI, can forecast levels, patterns, and trends, aiding in proactive policy-making. Real-time reporting and dynamic dashboards can provide stakeholders with timely
insights, while Natural Language Processing (NLP) can enhance public engagement through sentiment analysis and automated customer support. Enhanced data visualization techniques, driven by AI, can offer in-depth data exploration, and security measures can be bolstered with anomaly detection and data anonymization.

Furthermore, AI can optimize resources, automating routine tasks and enhancing operational efficiency. In essence, AI holds the promise of transforming the national statistical systems into more efficient, accurate, and responsive entities, driving data-driven decision-making to new heights.


Despite strides of progress being made though in a pocketed fashion, Africa is still a long way to fully harness the potential of AI. The integration of AI into the realm of statistics faces a myriad of challenges. Many regions within the continent grapple with incomplete datasets due to a lack of comprehensive data collection mechanisms. Even when data is available, its accuracy and standardization can be questionable, with institutions and agencies collecting data in varied formats, making consolidation and analysis a daunting task. Infrastructural limitations further exacerbate the situation. Limited and inconsistent internet access, especially in rural locales, hinders real-time data collection and the use of cloud-based AI processing. Moreover, the sporadic electricity supply in certain areas disrupt consistent AI operations.

The continent also faces a significant skill gap in digitalization. While there's a burgeoning interest in AI, there's a palpable shortage of professionals’ adept in AI. Financial constraints pose another hurdle. On the other hand, the initial setup for AI, encompassing both hardware and software, can be prohibitively expensive, and securing adequate investment remains challenging. On the regulatory front, the absence of robust data protection laws raises concerns about data privacy and ensuring the ethical use of AI. Cultural and societal factors play a role too. There's often skepticism or a lack of understanding about AI, leading to hesitancy in adopting AI-driven methods. Additionally, AI models trained on non-local data might miss the unique socio-cultural nuances intrinsic to African regions. Lastly, the challenge of integrating AI with legacy statistical systems and overcoming institutional resistance to change cannot be overlooked.

Despite these challenges, with collaborative efforts and strategic initiatives, Africa has the potential to leverage AI for transformative statistical insights. AI can still offer valuable insights and improvements in statistical analysis in Africa, but a concerted effort is needed to address these issues and promote responsible AI usage.

Is Africa ready?

As already mentioned earlier the national statistical systems in Africa exhibit a spectrum of readiness when it comes to embracing AI. While AI adoption remains in its nascent stages, some countries, particularly those with burgeoning tech hubs like South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, and Rwanda, have made notable strides in integrating
digital solutions into their statistical processes. On the policy front, several countries, including Ethiopia, Ghana, Morocco, Rwanda, South Africa, Tunisia, and Uganda, are taking steps to formulate AI policies. Ghana and Uganda have participated in the Ethical Policy Frameworks for Artificial Intelligence in the Global South project,
conducted in 2019 by UN Global Pulse and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. This project aimed at developing local policy frameworks for AI, and Ghana continues to collaborate with UN Global Pulse to map its AI ecosystem and craft a blueprint for its national AI strategy. Rwanda is also gearing towards developing a national AI policy cantered on the ethical and responsible use of AI for social and economic progress.

Mauritius unveiled its AI strategy in 2018, emphasizing the transformative potential of AI and emerging technologies in addressing the nation's socioeconomic challenges. It envisaged AI as a crucial driver for revitalizing traditional economic sectors and forging a new path for national development in the coming decade and beyond. The strategic areas highlighted encompassed manufacturing, healthcare, fintech, agriculture, and the management of smart ports and maritime traffic. 

These efforts are being undertaken with the support of the African Union and the UN Economic for Africa and other partners in line with the African Union’s Digital Transformation Strategy 2020-2030. Collaborative initiatives, such as partnerships with international tech firms and AI research institutions, have started to bridge some of these gaps. Notwithstanding, while there's a palpable enthusiasm and recognition of AI's potential among national statistical offices and system, the journey to full-fledged adoption is marked by infrastructural, financial, human resource, and policy challenges.

ISI contribution to AI

The ISI as a statistical professional body has a pivotal role to play to help integrate AI in the statistical sphere as it leads, supports, and promotes the development and good practice of statistical across world. It stands at the forefront of statistical development and therefore, in this age of technological advancement, ISI has a crucial responsibility to bridge the worlds of traditional approaches in statistics and modern approaches including AI. ISI has the expertise to guide the integration of AI into the statistical domain through its extensive membership consisting of experts from varied statistical backgrounds and therefore, it is uniquely positioned to shape the future of AI-driven statistical models. By leveraging on its membership collective expertise, the ISI can champion the use of statistics in the design, implementation, and refinement of AI systems. The integration or collaboration between AI and statistics would empower AI algorithms to be more adept at learning from diverse
and complex data sets, making them more responsive to new information, and, most importantly, ensuring that decisions made by AI are well-informed and unbiased. Some of this work can be led and initiated by the ISI capacity building committee working collaboratively with some the sections of ISI. The proposed ISI Academy for statistical capacity building which will focus on facilitating and supporting ISI members and partners from its network in optimising their abilities to deliver effective and efficient statistical capacity building could be good lever in mainstreaming and integrating of AI in statistical systems, especially in the developing countries where
the systems are weak or inadequate. This approach could help weak systems in developing countries leapfrog to meet the challenges of the ever-changing data ecosystem.

The Pathway

It is evident that African countries recognize the transformative potential of AI and the mantra of leaving no-one behind. It is therefore imperative that countries embark on a multi-pronged strategy to harness its capabilities. Firstly, investing in infrastructure, including robust data storage solutions, high-speed internet connectivity, and advanced computing hardware. They should build capacity by collaborating with academia and the private sector - tech companies to train staff in AI methodologies. Establishing partnerships with tech firms, startups, and international organizations can facilitate access to cutting-edge AI tools and best practices. On the policy front, countries should develop clear guidelines on data privacy, ethics, and AI usage, ensuring transparency and public trust. It is also important to educate the public about the benefits of AI in statistics to ensure inclusivity. The national statistical offices can play this role to foster a collaborative, data-driven ecosystem that benefits the entire continent.


The potential of integrating AI into the data ecosystem or statistical landscape of Africa is profound. As the digital age sweeps across the globe, Africa stands at a crossroads, thus, to leverage this potent technology and transform its statistical methodologies or to lag. The challenges, ranging from infrastructure to human capital and from funding constraints to policy frameworks, are significant, but not insurmountable. The confluence of AI and statistics in Africa has the potential to usher in a new era of data-driven prosperity. By addressing challenges and capitalizing on opportunities, Africa can position itself as a global leader in AI-driven statistical advancements.

Oliver Chinganya
Director, African Centre for Statistics, UNECA and ISI Vice President